crown shape when pruning planting scheme (m) plants/ha
shapely spindle on a hill 3-3,2 * 0.8-1.2 2600-4160
shapely spindle on a plain/ lowland 3,5-3,7 * 0,9-1,3 2080-3180
solacs/solaks 4-4,5*1,2-1,5 1480-2080
V-shaped 3,5*0,7-0,8 3500-4000
Supershpindel 3-3,2*0,5 5700
Bibaum 3,5*1 2860
Candelabrum 3,5*1,5-2 1400-1900


This is the most commonly used form of crown, when gardeners grow apple trees. A plant at the end of formation looks like a conical in shape: wide at the bottom and constantly tapering and shapely at the top, with branches that become shorter from the lower tier to the upper, and at a height of 70-80 cm from the ground, there should be a tier of branches, evenly turned in all directions and bent back horizontally. This form is used in hilly and high-level zones, where rejuvenating pruning – the prerogative of this form, does not permit the vegetative mass to grow uncontrollably. The ideal plants for the beginning of formation, in such case, will be both knip and annual seedling, provided that the plant has enough twigs, laying the first twigs can be at a height of 70-80 cm. In the case of bare seedlings or young trunks, the time of entry into fruiting is lengthened. During the first three or four years, it is necessary to perform numerous bends of branches with insufficient inclination back, in order to bring them to a horizontal position, or by removing vigorous growing branches, make it possible to get the natural bend of the branches back under the weight of fruit. However, the overly vigorous branches that compete with the trunk have to be removed in any case. Renewal of branches happens through the rejuvenation pruning. The top of the tree drops to 4-5° per year in relation to the old branch at the desired height


Today this form is the most intense, as it is created with the aim to achieve full fruiting for the third year. A plant consists of a guide, where the fruit branches with a special section are laid such section does not have to compete with the guide, whichever it is; higher branches, and branches with a section exceeding 1/3 of the guide’s section, must be removed. This form has high expectations on in terms of quantity, quality, early fruiting and cost reduction. The choice of this type of crown should be made taking into account soil-climatic conditions and the stock variety


This is the growing scheme that is the most suitable for vigorous cultivaters. It consists of two branches growing along the row. The aim of the scheme is: to form high and thin wall, improve the light mode of the crown. The presence of two guides makes it possible to reduce the growth of vegetative mass that is useful in many ways, at the same time, reducing the overall size of the plant. Such form can be achieved both on the field, by pinching the top, and in the nursery-gardens (pre-formed guiders). The approach to this type of formation can be modified by the distribution of growth power between the three branches, in that case it would be a candelabra-shaped crown.


The Gaiot system is a tree with a horizontally bound fruit axis it is similar to lattice forming in vine growing. The tree already got a predesigned certain tilt of the fruit-stalk upon delivery, and it can simply be tied to a horizontal form. Also, the axis of fruit has just only side shoots growing on the one side and be headed towards the end of the axis, in order to counteract the sprout’s natural growing tendency at the beginning of the curved axis.


Candelabrum is a shape; when from two basic horizontal boughs of the tree grow some vertically or indirectly up-tending twigs with different variations of twigs. It is really difficult to shape all such forms, but in some cases they are very suitable, for example, to occupy a narrow space a small candelabrum deserves attention

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