Apple tree is the most important fruit crop in Italy in production volumes. Collecting harvest of 22-23 million centners per year, Italy, on a par with Poland aspires to the top position in Europe. In addition the fruitage in Italy is constant, with a little tendency to increase, that sets Italy apart from Poland, where due to frosts the volume of output constantly varies. In the world, apple-breeding is highly standardized for the rootstocks (M9 and similar to M9) and forms of crown (spindle-like and “spindle” and its varieties, single-row). At the same time, the accelerating of the renewal of varieties, which are mostly based on red-colored clones of traditional cultivars such as Red Delicious, Gala, Fuji, Braeburn, etc. is supported, also in the form of growing new organizations that come into existence and broaden under the name of “Club” This is needed to hold the key of both the cultivated areas, and the quality of the sold for fresh consumption products. Of the two early varieties in Italy, “Golden Delicious” remains the leader, while “Red Delicious” group has largely lost ground. We can also notice such situation in case of the United States, where “Red Delicious” was the apple-favorite for more than a century. Today, cultivars resistant to scab cannot compete with traditional cultivars yet, but the number of qualitative sustainable varieties with good keeping capacity is constantly growing. Moreover such new varieties approve themselves better than traditional ones if they are grown according to biological technology.


Aesthetically, the best apples are oblong shape, thin-skinned, with shiny red colour and absence of rusting. They can be stored for long periods without loss of quality. These characteristics are typical for apples grown in alpine valleys in the areas located at the altitude of 400-700m above sea level, where the most part of national product is now concentrated. Every observing or properly informed customer is well aware that fruits predominantly grown on the plain reach the best taste qualities. Therefore such varieties as Gala, Fuji, and one of the earliest – Annurca can produce competitive products even in conditions of the southern plains.


The rootstocks used now (M9, its clones, the clones of Paradiso) can be grown on almost all kinds of soil, just avoid water stagnation, high concentration of lime carbonate, abnormal pH and etc. However, watering is required, even under the favorable conditions due to their root system.


Choosing the right rootstock is the most important part of the whole process of establishing of orchard: similarity, growth control, early entry into fruiting and maintaining of proper product standards – these are the goals that a rootstock should satisfy. Over the years of work, East Malling English station has highlighted such rootstocks as M9, M26, M106 and their derivative clones that today have become an organic part of nursery-garden products. The planting intensification process has determined the success of M9 dwarf rootstock, while M26 and M106 are used, when there is a need in increasing of growth strength, or grafting of spur varieties, or in case of setting up orchards for biological products. Due to its dwarfness, early fruiting and high product standards M9 is the most commonly used rootstock. The variety needs a supporting structure. M9 T337 NAKB, Pajam® 1 Lancep *, (Pajam® 2 Cepiland*) and M9 EMLA are the most common virus-free clones. M9 T337 NAKB being dwarfness (- 15-20%, than M9 EMLA) and easily compatible with all varieties is a mostly used clone. It is considered the most suitable for modern intensive plantings. On the contrary, M9 EMLA has scanty root bases. Pajam® 1 Lancep* has even less growth strength, so it is recommended for tall varieties such as Fuji, and as for Pajam® 2 Cepiland*, due to its signified highness, the variety is suitable for medium-density plantings and low-growing varieties, both of them have root bases and characterized by pollen-related activity. The Supporter® 4 Pi 80* variety is of German origin, it belongs to the family of semi-dwarf rootstocks, this makes it an alternative to M26. It is really good for grafting of Red Delicious spur cultivars. Among the latest semi-dwarf rootstocks, the P22 variety of German origin is more noticeable. It is still under the testing, but in any case, it is good for close plantings and able to increase the productivity. The variety needs fertile and well-cultivated soils and it suffers from drought; also it is suitable for grafting of tall-growing varieties. As for the latest vigorous rootstocks, M116 is the most distinguishable. It has more growth strength than M106 and can be attractive for spur cultivars and soils of medium-low fertility or stubble due to resistant to phytophtore.

Подвои, используемые для яблони

tree stock       genesis growth strength suitability advantages disadvantages
Pajam® 1* Lancep virus-free clones M9 low (-20% EMLA 9) for fertile and irrigated soils suitable for vigorous varieties polliniferous; bring forth the aggregation of root bases
M9 T 337 NAKB virus-free clones M9 low (-15% EMLA 9) for fertile and irrigated soils similarity, early fruiting, high yielding, high quality fruit poorly tolerates heavy and dry soils
M9 EMLA 9 virus-free clones M9 Medium-low for fertile and irrigated soils, including heavy soils similarity, early fruiting, high yielding, high quality fruit polliniferous; bring forth the aggregation of root bases
Pajam® 2 Cepiland* virus-free clones M9 Medium-low (+20% Pajam® 1) for fertile and irrigated soils Suitable for medium-grown varieties and medium-density plantings pollen-bearing, produces the aggregation of root bases
M26 virus-free clones hybrid M16* M9 Medium (+25% T 337 NAKB) for fertile and irrigated soils for spur varieties and dwarfish varieties Not suitable for compacted soils
Supporter® 4 Pi 80* virus-free clones hybrid M9* M4 Medium (+25% T 337 NAKB) for different types of soil  for spur varieties and dwarfish varieties  
M106 virus-free clones Northern Spy* M1 High (+50-70% T 337 NAKB) for different types of soil, except for dense and stubble for spur varieties and dwarfish varieties superfluously vigorous with standard varieties
M111 virus-free clones Northern Spy* Merton 973 High (+70-90% T 337 NAKB) for different types of soil, also for arid and rich in lime for spur varieties and dwarfish varieties superfluously vigorous with standard varieties 

Growth strength of apple rootstock

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