Plant pollination

It is essential is a need to look ahead of adequate cross-pollination at the location of the orchard start. Provide at least 10-15% pollinator plants situated along trellises (also “outside the arch/order”); in such cases, the Granny Smith variety is the most suitable because of early flowering, drug-responsiveness for chopping, and guarantee of prolonged flowering for many years. The Everest and Prof. Sprenger pollinator varieties to deal with the pollination problem should also be noted. There is no need to plant pollinators along the row in multi-varieties apple gardens if varietal block consists of 4-5 rows maximum. In order to optimize the quantity and quality of products, it is recommended to have at least 4-5 bee hives per hectare. The alternative to bees may be bumblebees (2/4 hives per hectare).

Watering

Watering can be done with the emitter drip irrigation system, microfluid nozzles, or by irrigating the crown. Irrigation of the crown in addition to watering can help protect against frost in spring and cooling of fruits in the summer heat. Drip watering allows more efficient use of water, but in hot and dry years it should be accurately and timely dosed, to ensure proper development at all phenological stages, preventing the occurrence of a situation of physiological stress. A microfluid nozzle system can be considered as a fully valid alternative to drip watering, as it allows us to wet up a large surface of the soil and roots, giving them greater hydro-autonomousness. The possibility to integrate different watering methods sounds interesting, as it gives the opportunity to take advantage of each method. Drip watering of apple trees.

Drip watering of apple trees

МЕСЯЦ Среднее суточное испарение, мм Коэффициент культуры Потребл., мм/день Смены Общий объём МЗ/га л/растение
с 1 по 15 июня 5 0,6 3 1 30 8,4
с 16 по 30 июня 5,5 0,6 3,3 1 33 9,24
с 1 по 15 июля 6 0,7 4,2 1 42 11,76
с 16 по 30 июля 6 0,7 4,2 1 42 11,76
с 1 по 15 августа 6 0,7 4,2 1 42 11,76
с 16 по 30 августа 5 0,7 3,5 1 35 9,80
с 1 по 15 сентября 3,5 0,7 2,45 1 24,5 6,86
с 16 по 30 сентября 3 0,7 2,1 1 21 5,88

DEFRUITING

The technology of defruiting is fundamental and specific to each variety, and is integral to them, moreover it is strongly determined by climatic conditions; especially now, with the fact that almost all agrichemicals for lighting. The appearing of carbaryl (2008) forced out of gardeners and employees in the field of horticulture to modify all lighting strategy. The suggested alternative product Benzyl adenine (BA) is efficient only for the certain varietiy groups, the most important among them are Golden, Fuji and Gala (only partially); Practically, there is no any lighting effect on Red Delicious standard and spur. The chemical lighting effect cannot last constantly over the years; the formation of dwarf fruits is sometimes occurred. Besides Benzyl adenine there is Ammid (NAD) available. It is a lighting agent that induces petal fall in order to prepare a plant to subsequent activity. But even this agent can be recommended only for the certain varieties groups: Golden, Gala, Granny, and it absolutely cannot be used for Fuji and Red Delicious. One more lighting agent, that is used when the size of seed-bud reaches 10 mm, is Alpha-acetum-naphth acid. The agent evinces mild lightning effect most notably in the conditions of plain, but it can assist in the formation of dwarf fruits in some varieties (such as Fuji and Red Delicious). In recent years the intensive studies on the chemical thinning in apple blossoms have been carried out. It has been a difficult and risky task. When this occurs, the application of two agents: Ethephon and Ammonium thiosulfate is recommended. They are recommended particularly for Fuji and Red Delcious. The new critical line in the affair is a mechanical thinning that is also carried out during blossoming with the help of machines that equipped with plastic whips. To use such machines, the trees should have oblate shape of crown, so transformation from classical massive forms to above-described shapes (Spindle, Supershpindel, and Bibaum) is needed.

FRUIT COSMETICS

Under cosmetics is implied a multiple-purpose system of precautions and particular activities, the purpose of which is to achieve that the peel (epidermis) of the apple will be as smooth as possible, without scale, microdamages and at the same time shiny. No doubt that during the processing, it is necessary to avoid the use of copper, liquid preparations containing ES, Dodine and leaf fertilizers based on Mn-Zn-Fe, beginning with the pink flower bud phase and further. Additionally, it is recommended to minimise as much as possible utilization of phyto-medical mixtures of various compositions (for example liquid-powder). The recommended procedure is conducted using preparations based on Kaolin and Gibberellin.

Ripening calendar of apple varieties (in relation to Golden Delcious Clone B in Emilia-Romagna Golden Delcious Clone B ripens on September 15)

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